شخصيات ولدوا وماتوا في رمضان.. السيدة عائشة أم المؤمنين

ارتبط شهر رمضان، بالكثير من الشعائر والعبادات، وكانت فيه أكبر الفتوحات في الحضارة الإسلامية‏، كما شهد الشهر الكريم ميلاد ووفاة شخصيات من أعلام التاريخ الإسلامي. من بينهم، زوج رسول الله، التي توفيت في السادس عشر من رمضان سنة 58. أي أنها توفيت بعد النبي بسبعة وأربعين عاما ودفنت في البقيع، وكان عمرها آنذاك سبعة وستين عاما، وكانت من أحب نساء الرسول إليه.

وهي أم المؤمنين عائشة بنت أبي بكر الصديق، زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، وأشهر نسائه. ولدت -رضي الله عنها- سنة تسع قبل الهجرة، كنيتها أم عبد الله، ولُقِّبت بالصِّدِّيقة، وعُرِفت بأم المؤمنين، وبالحميراء لغلبة البياض على لونها. وأمها أم رومان بنت عامر بن عويمر الكنانية -رضي الله عنها- التي قال فيها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: « من أحب أن ينظر إلى امرأة من الحور العين، فلينظر إلى أم رومان ».

حال السيدة عائشة في الجاهلية
ولدت عائشة رضي الله عنها في الإسلام ولم تدرك الجاهلية، وكانت من المتقدمين في إسلامهم؛ فقد روى البخاري ومسلم عن عروة بن الزبير أن عائشة زوج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قالت: « لم أعقل أبوي إلا وهما يدينان الدين ».

قصة زواج السيدة عائشة من النبي
في بيت الصدق والإيمان ولدت، وفي أحضان والدَيْنِ كريمين من خيرة صحابة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم تربت، وعلى فضائل الدين العظيم وتعاليمه السمحة نشأت وترعرعت. وقد تمت خطبتها لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهي بنت سبع سنين، وتزوجها وهي بنت تسع؛ وذلك لحداثة سنها، فقد بقيت تلعب بعد زواجها فترة من الزمن.

روي عنها أنها قالت: دخل عليَّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأنا ألعب بالبنات، فقال: ما هذا يا عائشة؟ قلت: خيل سليمان. فضحك.

وقد أحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم خطيبته الصغيرة كثيرًا، فكان يوصي بها أمها أم رومان قائلاً: « يا أم رومان، استوصي بعائشة خيرًا واحفظيني فيها ». وكان يسعده كثيرًا أن يذهب إليها كلما اشتدت به الخطوب، وينسى همومه في غمرة دعابتها ومرحها.

وبعد هجرة الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى المدينة، لحقته العروس المهاجرة إلى المدينة المنورة، وهناك اجتمع الحبيبان، وعمَّت البهجة أرجاء المدينة المنورة، وأهلت الفرحة من كل مكان؛ فالمسلمون مبتهجون لانتصارهم في غزوة بدر الكبرى، واكتملت فرحتهم بزواج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بعائشة. وقد تمَّ هذا الزواج الميمون في شوال سنة اثنتين للهجرة، وانتقلت عائشة إلى بيت النبوة.

أهم ملامح شخصية السيدة عائشة «الكرم والسخاء والزهد»
أخرج ابن سعد من طريق أم درة قالت: أتيت السيدة عائشة رضي الله عنها بمائة ألف ففرقتها وهي يومئذ صائمة، فقلت لها: أما استطعت فيما أنفقت أن تشتري بدرهم لحمًا تفطرين عليه!! فقالت: لو كنت أذكرتني لفعلت.

العلم الغزير
فقد كان أكابر الصحابة يسألونها عن الفرائض؛ قال عطاء بن أبي رباح: كانت عائشة رضي الله عنها من أفقه الناس، وأحسن الناس رأيًا في العامة. قال أبو موسى الأشعري رضي الله عنه: ما أشكل علينا أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم حديث قَطُّ، فسألنا عنه عائشة -رضي الله عنها- إلا وجدنا عندها منه علمًا.

وقال عروة بن الزبير بن العوام: ما رأيت أحدًا أعلم بالحلال والحرام، والعلم، والشعر، والطب من عائشة أم المؤمنين رضي الله عنها.

ذات مكانة خاصة
‏أخرج البخاري في صحيحه عن ‏أبي موسى الأشعري رضي الله عنه أنه ‏قال: ‏قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:‏ « ‏كَمُل من الرجال كثير، ولم يكمل من النساء إلا ‏مريم بنت عمران، ‏وآسية امرأة فرعون، ‏وفضل ‏عائشة ‏على النساء كفضل ‏الثريد ‏على سائر الطعام ».

وأخرج الإمام مسلم في صحيحه ‏عن ‏عائشة -رضي الله عنها- ‏أنها قالت: « كان الناس ‏‏يتحرّون ‏بهداياهم يوم ‏عائشة؛ ‏يبتغون ‏بذلك مرضاة رسول الله ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ».

وأخرج البخاري ومسلم في صحيحيهما عن ‏أبي سلمة أنه قال:‏ ‏إن ‏عائشة -رضي الله عنها- ‏قالت: ‏قال رسول الله ‏r ‏يومًا: « ‏يا ‏عائش، ‏هذا ‏جبريل ‏يقرئك السلام ». فقلت: وعليه السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته، ترى ما لا أرى. تريد رسول الله ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم.

بعض المواقف من حياة السيدة عائشة مع الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم
ذكر ابن سعد في طبقاته عن عباد بن حمزة أن عائشة -رضي الله عنها- قالت: يا نبي الله، ألا تكنيني؟ فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: « اكتني بابنك عبد الله بن الزبير »، فكانت تكنى بأم عبد الله.

وعن مسروق قال: قالت لي عائشة رضي الله عنها: لقد رأيت جبريل واقفًا في حجرتي هذه على فرس ورسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يناجيه، فلما دخل قلت: يا رسول الله، من هذا الذي رأيتك تناجيه؟ قال: « وهل رأيته؟ » قلت: نعم. قال: « فبمن شبهته؟ » قلت: بدحية الكلبي. قال: « لقد رأيت خيرًا كثيرًا، ذاك جبريل ». قالت: فما لبثت إلا يسيرًا حتى قال: « يا عائشة، هذا جبريل يقرأ عليك السلام ». قلت: وعليه السلام، جزاه الله من دخيلٍ خيرًا ».

وعن هشام بن عروة عن أبيه قال: قالت لي عائشة: يابن أختي، قال لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: « ما يخفى عليَّ حين تغضبين ولا حين ترضين ». فقلت: بمَ تعرف ذاك بأبي أنت وأمي؟ قال: « أما حين ترضين فتقولين حين تحلفين: لا ورب محمد، وأما حين تغضبين فتقولين: لا ورب إبراهيم ». فقلت: صدقت يا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم.

بعض المواقف من حياة أم المؤ منين عائشة مع الصحابة
كان من أهم المواقف في حياتها -رضي الله عنها- مع الصحابة ما جاء في أحداث موقعة الجمل في جمادى الآخرة سنة ست وثلاثين، والتي راح ضحيتها اثنان من خيرة أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم هما: طلحة والزبير رضي الله عنهما، ونحو عشرين ألفًا من المسلمين.

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