رفع الحجر الصحي: كيف يتم تدبير الخوف من الآخر ؟

مع اقتراب رفع الحجر الصحي، انقسمت مشاعر المغاربة بين الرغبة والخوف في اللقاء داخل سياق يتميز ببقاء خطر انتشار فيروس (كوفيد-19) من جديد. ولتسليط الضوء على تدبير هذا الخوف، اتصلت وكالة المغرب العربي للأنباء بالمحلل النفسي والكاتب المغربي جليل بناني.

كوفيد-19، “العدو الخفي”

أكد المحلل النفسي أن الخوف يسكن المواطنين منذ بداية الوباء، ومن تم فإنه من الطبيعي الحديث عن “حرب” أو “عدو خفي”.

ولا يتعلق الأمر بحرب حقيقية بمقاتلين، فالهدف من استعمال لفظ ذو حمولة حربية هو دق ناقوس الخطر حول الفيروس ووضع وسائل الحماية.

وسائل للحماية لمكافحة الجائحة

تشتمل هذه الوسائل على “التدابير الوقائية”. واحترام التباعد الاجتماعي مع كل شخص خارج المنزل، وكل أجنبي عن مكان تواجدنا خلال الحجر الصحي، وأي شخص تم اللقاء به داخل الأماكن العمومية.

هل يمكن الحديث إذن عن استقرار الخوف من الآخر ؟

“للتغلب على مسألة الخوف من الآخر، يتيعن الانطلاق من القول بأنه من الممكن أن نكون نحن هو ذلك الآخر بالنسبة لشخص آخر، وهو ما يربط بين الأشياء ويجنب الإسقاطات على هذا الشخص الآخر، الذي يمكن اعتباره الحامل الوحيد لهذا الخطر”.

الخوف، آلية للدفاع

يعتبر الخوف آلية للدفاع، على عكس الهلع الناجم عن مواجهة حدث عنيف وقاس مثل حادثة سير”. في هذه الحالة “يعلق كل شيء، وتفتقد الكلمات، ليأتي الخوف في ما بعد، متيحا الوقت أمام الإعداد والتعبير عن الإدراك”.

أمام الخطر، الخوف يبقى ظاهرة طبيعية

“عند احترام المسافات الضرورية، نستطيع تجاوز الخوف”. من الممكن الحديث عن الخوف والتخلص منه، “على عكس الهلع الذي يسكن الجسد”.
خلال هذه الظرفية الاستثنائية، يجب شرح الأمور للأطفال

“في الحياة الطبيعية، يحب الطفل اللعب بالخوف، ويجد متعة في رواية قصص مخيفة، وهي طريقته في تدبير هذا الخوف، الأمر الذي يعتبر بنيويا بالنسبة له”.

“يتعين على الوالد أو الشخص البالغ التحلي بالهدوء ورباطة الجأش أمام الطفل لطمأنته”.

خلال التعامل مع الأطفال الصغار، وخصوصا أولئك الذين لايتجاوزون سبع سنوات، “من الممكن رواية قصص حول ذلك “الشرير” الذي يمكن أن يكون هو الفيروس مثلا، أو إنجاز رسومات”، أما بالنسبة للأطفال فوق هذا السن، “يمكن تفسير الوضعية باستعمال كلمات مبسطة”.

الخوف ليس فويبا

يجب التفريق بين الخوف والفوبيا التي تعتبر علامة على وجود مرض أو خلل.

“حينما ترتفع نسبة الهلع إلى درجة قصوى، يتركز هذا الهلع على شيء ما أو حيوان أو أمراض، أو الشارع في بعض الأحيان …، ويتسبب في ردود فعل من الذعر غير المتحكم فيه، ويفتعل كبتا نفسيا يمنع صاحبه من مواجهة الوضع المخيف”.

التخوف من الخروج من الحجر الصحي

وجد الأشخاص الذي يعانون من رهاب أو خوف الخلاء والخروج إلى الفضاءات الكبيرة، بعضا من الطمأنينة والراحة في الحجر الصحي، الذي يعطيهم الانطباع أنهم في نفس حالة الأشخاص الآخرين، ويعطيهم نوعا من الأمن من خلال الامتناع عن الخروج.

“وهذا هو السبب الكامن وراء تخوف هذه الفئة من الخروج من الحجر الصحي”.

وهنا أيضا، يتطلب الأمر منهم التكلم والتعبير، وعدم نسيان الأعراض التي كانوا مصابين بها قبل الجائحة، ومتابعة مكافحة هذه الأعراض كما كان الحال عيه من قبل”.

” ويستطيعون أيضا مواصلة الدعم الطبي الذي كانوا يستفيدون منه سابقا، كما ينطبق هذا الأمر على الأشخاص الذين يعانون من نوبات الهلع وباقي الاضطرابات النفسية قبل الجائحة”.

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